Plastic surgery is a medical procedure with the purpose of alteration or restoring the form of the body. Though cosmetic or aesthetic surgery is the most well known kind of plastic surgery, plastic surgery itself is not necessarily considered cosmetic; and includes many types of reconstructive surgery, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns.
In the term plastic surgery, the adjective plastic implies sculpting or reshaping. This meaning in English is attested as early as 1598. The surgical definition of “plastic” first appeared in 1839, preceding the modern “engineering material made from petroleum” sense of plastic (coined by Leo Baekeland in 1909) by seventy years.
In plastic surgery, the transfer of skin tissue (skin grafting) is a very common procedure. Skin grafts can be derived from the recipient or donors:
- Autografts are taken from the recipient. If absent or deficient of natural tissue, alternatives can be cultured sheets of epithelial cells in vitro or synthetic compounds, such as integra, which consists of silicone and bovine tendon collagen with glycosaminoglycans.
- Allografts are taken from a donor of the same species.
- Xenografts are taken from a donor of a different species.
Usually, good results would be expected from plastic surgery that emphasize careful planning of incisions so that they fall within the line of natural skin folds or lines, appropriate choice of wound closure, use of best available suture materials, and early removal of exposed sutures so that the wound is held closed by buried sutures.
THE FATHER OF MODERN PLASTIC SURGERY IS GENERALLY CONSIDERED TO HAVE BEEN SIR HAROLD GILLIES. A NEW ZEALAND OTOLARYNGOLOGIST WORKING IN LONDON, HE DEVELOPED MANY OF THE TECHNIQUES OF MODERN FACIAL SURGERY IN CARING FOR SOLDIERS SUFFERING FROM DISFIGURING FACIAL INJURIES DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR....Read More