Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are both surgical and medical specialists.
A multitude of diseases and conditions can be diagnosed from the eye. Ophthalmology includes sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain parts of the eye. Some of them are:
- Anterior segment surgery
- Retinal ophthalmology, which emphasizes such things as laser treatment of the retina and actual retinal surgery
- Cataracts – not usually considered a subspecialty per se, since most general ophthalmologists perform cataract surgery
- Cornea, ocular surface, and external disease
- Medical retina, deals with treatment of retinal problems through non-surgical means.
- Ocular oncology
- Oculoplastics and orbit surgery
- Ophthalmic pathology
- Pediatric ophthalmology/strabismus (misalignment of the eyes)
- Refractive surgery
- Veterinary formal specialty training programs in veterinary ophthalmology now exist in some countries.
- Vitreo-retinal surgery, deals with surgical management of retinal and posterior segment diseases and disorders. Medical retina and vitreo-retinal surgery sometimes together called posterior segment sub-specialization.
THE INDIAN SURGEON SUSHRUTA WROTE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA IN SANSKRIT IN ABOUT 800 BC WHICH DESCRIBES 76 OCULAR DISEASES (OF THESE 51 SURGICAL) AS WELL AS SEVERAL OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES. HIS DESCRIPTION OF CATARACT SURGERY WAS MORE AKIN TO EXTRACAPSULAR LENS EXTRACTION THAN TO COUCHING. HE HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS THE FIRST CATARACT SURGEON....Read More